Partonomy list P4, primary language: LA, subsidiary: EN, interface: EN, work in progress

lobus frontalis (par)

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Top level systema nervosum
Level 2 encephalon Short Extended
Level 3 telencephalon Short Extended
Current level lobus frontalis (par)
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Partonomy list
Short official Latin term
Short English equivalent
61824 25033 5991
lobus frontalis (par)
frontal lobe (pair)
38487 8658
facies superolateralis (par)
superolateral surface (pair)
38490 8659
sulcus frontomarginalis (par)
frontomarginal sulcus (pair)
74885 38493 5992
polus frontalis (par)
frontal pole (pair)
274406 26762 11028
area frontopolaris (par)
frontopolar area (pair)
274408 26771 11029
gyrus frontopolaris superior (par)
superior frontopolar gyrus (pair)
274420 26893 11032
gyrus frontopolaris medius (par)
middle frontopolar gyrus (pair)
274414 27363 11034
gyrus frontopolaris inferior (par)
inferior frontopolar gyrus (pair)
274504 27463 11035
gyrus frontomarginalis (par)
frontomarginal gyrus (pair)
74886 5993 5993
operculum frontale
frontal operculum
61860 38499 5994
gyrus frontalis inferior (par)
inferior frontal gyrus (pair)
61982 38502 5995
pars orbitalis (par)
orbital part (pair)
61980 38505 5996
pars triangularis (par)
triangular part (pair)
27466 11840
sulcus radiatus (par)
radiate sulcus (pair)
61981 38508 5997
pars opercularis (par)
opercular part (pair)
83758 38511 8780
sulcus diagonalis (par)
diagonal sulcus (pair)
83757 38514 5998
sulcus frontalis inferior (par)
inferior frontal sulcus (pair)
273103 38517 5999
gyrus frontalis medius (par)
middle frontal gyrus (pair)
38520 8660
cortex prefrontalis superolateralis (par)
superolateral prefrontal cortex (pair)
38523 8661
cortex prefrontalis dorsolateralis (par)
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pair)
38526 8662
cortex prefrontalis ventrolateralis (par)
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (pair)
38529 8663
cortex premotorius superolateralis (par)
superolateral premotor cortex (pair)
38532 8664
cortex premotorius dorsalis (par)
dorsal premotor cortex (pair)
38535 8665
cortex premotorius ventralis (par)
ventral premotor cortex (pair)
61894 27915 6000
gyrus precentralis (par)
precentral gyrus (pair)
29175 12236
cortex motorius primarius gyri precentralis (par)
primary motor cortex of precentral gyrus (pair)
83800 27912 6001
sulcus precentralis (par)
precentral sulcus (pair)
83765 38541 8667
sulcus subcentralis anterior (par)
anterior subcentral sulcus (pair)
83778 38544 8668
sulcus subcentralis posterior (par)
posterior subcentral sulcus (pair)
61857 38547 6002
gyrus frontalis superior (par)
superior frontal gyrus (pair)
83755 38550 6003
sulcus frontalis superior (par)
superior frontal sulcus (pair)
38698 9118
facies inferomedialis (par)
inferomedial surface (pair)
61857 6002 6002
gyrus frontalis superior
superior frontal gyrus
27469 12158
sulcus paracingularis (par)
paracingulate sulcus (pair)
27473 12159
gyrus paracingularis (par)
paracingulate gyrus (pair)
83782 38701 6044
sulcus paracentralis (par)
paracentral sulcus (pair)
77534 6045 6045
lobulus paracentralis
paracentral lobule
77537 6046 6046
gyrus paracentralis anterior
anterior paracentral gyrus
12237 12237
cortex motorius primarius
primary motor cortex
38710 8669
cortex prefrontalis inferomedialis (par)
inferomedial prefrontal cortex (pair)
38713 8670
cortex prefrontalis medialis (par)
medial prefrontal cortex (pair)
38716 8671
cortex premotorius inferomedialis (par)
inferomedial premotor cortex (pair)
38719 8672
cortex premotorius medialis (par)
medial premotor cortex (pair)
61890 38722 6047
area subcallosa (par) ; gyrus subcallosus (par)
subcallosal area (pair) ; subcallosal gyrus (pair)
61919 38725 6048
gyrus paraterminalis (par)
paraterminal gyrus (pair)
61890 38728 6049
area paraolfactoria (par)
paraolfactory area (pair)
72019 38731 6050
gyrus paraolfactorius (par)
paraolfactory gyrus (pair)
38735 6051
sulci paraolfactorii (par)
paraolfactory sulci (pair)
83744 38738 8673
sulcus paraolfactorius anterior (par)
anterior paraolfactory sulcus (pair)
83745 38741 8674
sulcus paraolfactorius posterior (par)
posterior paraolfactory sulcus (pair)
256194 38745 6052
gyri orbitales (par)
orbital gyri (pair)
62419 38748 8675
gyrus orbitalis medialis (par)
medial orbital gyrus (pair)
256196 38751 8676
gyrus orbitalis anterior (par)
anterior orbital gyrus (pair)
80184 38754 8677
gyrus orbitalis posterior (par)
posterior orbital gyrus (pair)
62418 38757 8678
gyrus orbitalis lateralis (par)
lateral orbital gyrus (pair)
27481 12160
lobulus orbitalis posteromedialis (par)
posteromedial orbital lobule (pair)
27547 12161
regio orbitalis posterolateralis (par)
posterolateral orbital region (pair)
83770 38761 6053
sulci orbitales (par)
orbital sulci (pair)
38764 8679
sulcus orbitalis lateralis (par)
lateral orbital sulcus (pair)
83771 38767 8680
sulcus orbitalis transversus (par)
transverse orbital sulcus (pair)
38770 8681
sulcus orbitalis medialis (par)
medial orbital sulcus (pair)
27863 12162
sulcus rostralis superior (par)
superior rostral sulcus (pair)
27894 12163
sulcus rostralis inferior (par)
inferior rostral sulcus (pair)
61893 38773 6054
gyrus rectus (par)
straight gyrus (pair)
83769 38776 6055
sulcus olfactorius (par)
olfactory sulcus (pair)
38779 8682
substantia perforata anterior (par) ; substantia perforata rostralis (par)
anterior perforated substance (pair) ; rostral perforated substance (pair)
38782 8683
structurae olfactoriae (par)
olfactory structures (pair)
77624 38785 6195
bulbus olfactorius (par)
olfactory bulb (pair)
77625 38788 6196
pedunculus olfactorius (par)
olfactory peduncle (pair)
77626 6197 6197
tractus olfactorius
olfactory tract
74883 38791 6198
trigonum olfactorium (par)
olfactory trigone (pair)
61891 6199 6199
tuberculum olfactorium
olfactory tubercle
38795 6200
striae olfactoriae (par)
olfactory striae (pair)
77627 38798 6201
stria olfactoria medialis (par)
medial olfactory stria (pair)
61971 38801 6202
stria olfactoria lateralis (par)
lateral olfactory stria (pair)
46174 14202
tractus olfactorius lateralis (par)
lateral olfactory tract (pair)
38804 8686
regio retrobulbaris (par)
retrobulbar region (pair)
38807 8687
cortex piriformis (par) ; cortex olfactorius primarius (par)
piriform cortex (pair) ; primary olfactory cortex (pair)
38810 8689
pars frontalis (par)
frontal part (pair)
38813 8690
pars temporalis (par)
temporal part (pair)
80 lines
97.5 %
97.5 %
Scientific notes
Libelle of note
For the Polus frontalis (Frontal pole) and its subdivision, see Petrides M, Pandya DN (2012 The frontal lobe. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G, eds: The Human Nervous System, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 988-1011; Bludau S, Eickhoff SB, Mohlberg H, et al. (2014) Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole. Neuroimage 93:260-275.
For subdivision of Broca’s area, see Amunts K, Schleicher A, Bürgel U, et al. (1999 Broca’s region revisited: Cytoarchitecture and intersubject variability. J Comp Neurol 412:319-341). The Sulcus diagonalis (of Eberstaller) is a variable branch of the Sulcus lateralis, dividing the Pars opercularis into two parts. The Sulcus radiatus (of Eberstaller) may indent the Pars triangularis from above.
The following Gyri orbitales can be distinguished: 1) the Gyrus orbitalis medialis, the gyrus between the olfactory sulcus and the medial orbital sulcus; 2) the Gyrus orbitalis anterior, the cortex rostral to the transverse orbital sulcus; 3) the Gyrus orbitalis posterior, the cortex caudal to the transverse orbital sulcus; and 4) the Gyrus orbitalis lateralis, the gyrus lateral to the lateral orbital sulcus. The caudal parts of the medial and posterior orbital gyri merge to form the Lobulus orbitalis posteromedialis as described by Türe U, Yasargil DCH, Al-Mefti O, Yasargil MC (1999 Topographic anatomy of the insular region. J Neurosurg 90:720-733) and Naidich TP, Kang E, Fatterpekar GM, et al. (2004 The insula: Anatomic study and MR imaging display at 1.5T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:222-232). Mai and Majtanik (2017 Human Brain in Standard MNI Space. Academic/Elsevier, San Diego) also described a Regio orbitalis posterolateralis.
Lateral to the Sulcus olfactorius, there are two longitudinally directed sulci, the Sulcus orbitalis medialis and the Sulcus orbitalis lateralis, which are joined together by the Sulcus orbitalis transversus to form the impression of an H or a K pattern (Duvernoy 1992; Petrides and Pandya 2012). The cingulate sulcus continues around the rostrum of the corpus callosum, where it is also known as the Sulcus rostralis superior. This sulcus may continue as the Sulcus rostralis inferior, which separates the straight gyrus from the medial surface of the frontal lobe.
The Sulcus frontomarginalis (Frontomarginal sulcus of Wernicke) is an important landmark in the frontal polar region (Duvernoy HM 1992 Le cerveau humain. Springer, Paris; Tamraz JC, Comair YG 2006 Atlas of Regional Anatomy of the Brain Using MRI. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York), and used as such in the DTI literature (Catani M, Thiebaut de Schotten M 2012 Atlas of Human Brain Connections. Oxford University Press, Oxford).
The various Motor areas of the Frontal lobe are known as F1-F7 in monkey brains (see Geyer G, Luppino L, Rozzi G 2012 Motor cortex. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G, eds: The Human Nervous System, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1012-1035): F1 is the Primary motor cortex, F2 the Caudal part of the Cortex premotorius dorsalis, F3, the the Caudal part of the Cortex premotorius medialis (SMA proper), F4 the Caudal part of the Cortex premotorius ventralis, F5 the Rostral part of the Cortex premotorius ventralis, F6 the Rostral part of the Cortex premotorius medialis (Pre-SMA), and F7 the Rostral part of the Cortex premotorius dorsalis.
See note # 8663
See note # 8663
Usually, the Sulcus centralis does not reach the Sulcus lateralis and is separated from it by a short gyrus, the Gyrus subcentralis, which is formed by the 'fusion' of the Precentral and Postcentral gyri in their ventralmost parts. The Subcentral gyrus is delimited in front and behind by the Anterior and Posterior subcentral sulci (Dejerine 1895; Duvernoy 1992; Petrides and Pandya 2012). Also known as: Central or Rolandic operculum, and Inferior frontoparietal 'pli de passage'.
See note # 8666
See note # 8666
See note # 8663
See note # 8663
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6053
See note # 6053
See note # 6053
The term Nucleus olfactorius anterior of TA is mostly cortical and is replaced by the more appropriate term Regio retrobulbaris (see Zilles and Amunts 2012). The two- or three-layered structure recognizable in lower primates is hardly visible in the human brain.
See note # 5996
Frequently, a series of furrows delineates the Sulcus paracinguli (Paracingulate sulcus), which separates the medial division of the superior frontal gyrus from the Gyrus paracinguli (Paracingulate gyrus).
See note # 12158
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6053
See note # 6053
Type of list P4
List Unit Identifier 5991
Number of children 225 (validated)
Number of units 80 (validated)
Signature 6303 (validated since 12.12.2020)
Date: 31.12.2021