Partonomy list P4, primary language: EN, subsidiary: LA, interface: EN, work in progress

isocortex (pair)

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Top level nervous system
Level 2 encephalon Short Extended
Level 3 telencephalon Short Extended
Current level isocortex (pair)
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Partonomy list
Short English equivalent
Short official Latin term
62429 38986 6130
isocortex (pair) ; neocortex (pair)
isocortex (par) ; neocortex (par)
38989 8830
granular isocortex (pair)
isocortex granularis (par)
38992 8851
primary sensory areas (pair)
areae sensoriae primariae (par)
38995 8852
unimodal sensory areas (pair)
areae sensoriae unimodales (par)
38998 8853
higher order association areas (pair); principal association areas (pair)
areae associationis ordini magni (par); areae majores associationis (par)
39001 8868
agranular isocortex (pair)
isocortex agranularis (par)
39004 8869
primary motor area (pair)
area motoria primaria (par)
39008 8919
nonprimary motor areas (pair)
areae motoriae nonprimariae (par)
242257 39012 6131
layers of isocortex (pair)
strata isocorticis (par)
242259 39015 6132
molecular layer (pair) ; layer I (pair)
lamina molecularis (par) ; lamina I (par)
242264 39018 6133
external granular layer (pair) ; layer II (pair)
lamina granularis externa (par) ; lamina II (par)
242283 39021 6134
external pyramidal layer (pair) ; layer III (pair)
lamina pyramidalis externa (par) ; lamina III (par)
242298 39024 6135
internal granular layer (pair) ; layer IV (pair)
lamina granularis interna (par) ; lamina IV (par)
242313 39027 6136
internal pyramidal layer (pair) ; layer V (pair)
lamina pyramidalis interna (par) ; lamina V (par)
242333 39031 6137
multiform layer (pair) ; layer VI (pair)
lamina multiformis (par) ; lamina VI (par)
39035 8928
striae of myelinated fibres of isocortex (pair) ▲
striae fibrarum myelinatarum isocorticis (par)
77807 39038 6138
stria of molecular layer of isocortex (pair) ; layer 1 (pair) ; tangential layer (pair)
stria laminae molecularis (par) ; lamina 1 (par) ; lamina tangentialis (par)
39041 8929
superficial sublayer (pair) ; sublayer 1a (pair)
sublamina superficialis (par) ; sublamina 1a (par)
39044 8982
intermediate sublayer (pair) ; sublayer 1b (pair)
sublamina intermedia (par) ; sublamina 1b (par)
39047 9021
deep sublayer (pair) ; sublayer 1c (pair)
sublamina profunda (par) ; sublamina 1c (par)
39050 9022
dysfibrous layer (pair) ; layer 2 (pair)
lamina dysfibrosa (par) ; lamina 2 (par)
39053 9083
suprastriate layer (pair); layer 3 (pair)
lamina suprastriata (par) ; lamina 3 (par)
39056 9084
superficial sublayer (pair) ; sublayer 3a (pair)
sublamina superficialis (par) ; sublamina 3a (par)
39059 9085
intermediate sublayer (pair) ; sublayer 3b (pair)
sublamina intermedia (par) ; sublamina 3b (par)
39062 9086
deep sublayer (pair) ; sublayer 3c (pair)
sublamina profunda (par) ; sublamina 3c (par)
39065 9087
stria of external pyramidal layer of isocortex (pair) ; layer 4 (pair)
stria laminae pyramidalis externae (par) ; lamina 4 (par)
39068 9101
intrastriate layer (pair); sublayer 5a (pair)
lamina intrastriata (par) ; sublamina 5a (par)
77809 39071 6142
stria of internal pyramidal layer of isocortex (pair) ; sublayer 5b (pair)
stria laminae pyramidalis internae (par) ; sublamina 5b (par)
39074 9102
substriate and limiting layer (pair); layer 6 (pair)
lamina substriata limitans (par) ; lamina 6 (par)
39077 9109
substriate sublayer (pair); sublayer 6a (pair)
sublamina substriata (par) ; sublamina 6a (par)
39080 9110
limiting sublayer (pair) ; sublayer 6b (pair)
sublamina limitans (par) ; sublamina 6b (par)
39083 9114
vertical stria (pair)
stria verticalis (par)
39086 9116
cortical column of isocortex (pair)
columna corticalis isocorticis (par)
68614 39089 9119
primary visual cortex (pair) ; striate area (pair)
cortex visualis primarius (par) ; area striata (par)
75667 39092 6141
occipital stripe (pair)
stria occipitalis (par)
39095 9126
ocular dominance column (pair)
columna dominantiae ocularis (par)
39098 9127
orientation column (pair)
columna orientationis (par)
39101 9132
hypercolumn (pair)
hypercolumna (par)
39105 9135
neurons of isocortex (pair)
neura isocorticis (par)
39109 9139
projection neurons of isocortex (pair); pyramidal neurons of isocortex (pair)
neura projectionis isocorticis (par) ; neura pyramidalia isocorticis (par)
28161 8814
large pyramidal neurons of isocortex (pair) ; large pyramidal cells of isocortex (pair)
neura pyramidalia magna isocorticis (par)
28165 8815
giant pyramidal neurons of isocortex (pair) ; giant pyramidal cells of isocortex (pair)
neura pyramidalia gigantea isocorticis (par)
39115 9143
commissural neurons of isocortex (pair)
neura commissuralia isocorticis (par)
39119 8816
middle pyramidal neurons of isocortex (pair) ; medium-sized pyramidal cells of isocortex (pair)
neura pyramidalia media isocorticis (par)
39123 9155
association neurons of isocortex (pair)
neura associationis isocorticis (par)
39127 8817
small pyramidal neurons of isocortex (pair) ; small pyramidal cells of isocortex (pair)
neura pyramidalia parva isocorticis (par)
39131 9170
interneurons of isocortex (pair)
interneura isocorticis (par)
28279 8818
excitatory interneurons of isocortex (pair) ; spiny interneurons of isocortex (pair)
interneura excitatoria isocorticis (par) ; interneura spinosa isocorticis (par)
28283 8819
spiny stellate neurons of isocortex (pair) ; spiny stellate cells of isocortex (pair)
neura stellata spinosa isocorticis (par)
28287 8820
inhibitory interneurons of isocortex (pair) ; smooth interneurons of isocortex (pair)
interneura inhibitoria isocorticis (par) ; interneura levia isocorticis (par)
28291 8821
axodendritic neurons of isocortex (pair) ; axodendritic cells of isocortex (pair)
neura axodendritica isocorticis (par)
28303 8822
bipolar neurons of isocortex (pair) ; bipolar cells of isocortex (pair)
neura bipolaria isocorticis (par)
28307 8823
horizontal neurons of isocortex (pair) ; horizontal cells of isocortex (pair)
neura horizontalia isocorticis (par)
28311 8824
multitufted neurons of isocortex (pair) ; multititufted cells of isocortex (pair)
neura multiplumosa isocorticis (par)
28315 8825
neurogliaform neurons of isocortex (pair) ; spiderweb cells of isocortex (pair); neurogliaform cells of isocortex (pair)
neura neurogliaformia isocorticis (par) ; neura araneiformia isocorticis (par)
28319 8828
double dendritic bouquet neurons of isocortex (pair); bitufted neurons of isocortex (pair) ; double dendritic bouquet cells of isocortex (pair)
neura racemiformia biracemiformia isocorticis (par) ; neura biplumosa isocorticis (par)
28295 8829
axosomatodendritic neurons of isocortex (pair) ; axosomatodendritic cells of isocortex (pair)
neura axosomatodendritica isocorticis (par)
28323 8831
large basket neurons of isocortex (pair); large basket cells of isocortex (pair)
neura corbiformia magna isocorticis (par)
28327 8832
small basket neurons of isocortex (pair); small basket cells of isocortex (pair)
neura corbiformia parva isocorticis (par)
28299 8833
axoaxonal neurons of isocortex (pair) ; axoaxonal cells of isocortex (pair)
neura axoaxonalia isocorticis (par)
28331 8834
chandelier neurons of isocortex (pair) ; chandelier cells of isocortex (pair)
neura candelaria isocorticis (par)
61 lines
89.5 %
97.0 %
Scientific notes
Libelle of note
Mainly GABAergic interneurons (see Markram H, Toledo-Rodriguez M, Wang Y, et al. 2004 Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:793-807; Ascoli GA et al. 2008 Petilla terminology: Nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex. Nat Rev Neurosci 9:557-568; DeFelipe J et al. 2013 New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons. Nat Rev Neurosci 14:202-216); the current subdivision is based on preferred postsynaptic region.
Functional subdivision of the Isocortex as described by Mesulam M-M (1985 Patterns in behavioral neuroanatomy. In: Mesulam M-M, ed: Principles of Behavioral Neurology. Davis, Philadelphia, PN, pp 1-70). The Granular isocortex ranges from Hypergranular through Granular to Dysgranular.
Here, the Isocortical neurons are added, in part following and modifying TH terms. They are subdivided into Pyramidal neurons (Projection, Commissural nand Association eurons) and Excitatory and Inhibitory interneurons. In general, Small pyramidal neurons are found in Layer II and give rise to ipsilateral Corticocortical projections. Medium-sized pyramidal neurons are found in Layer III and give rise to Commissural projections. The Large pyramidal neurons in Layer V give rise to the Corticofugal projections (Mountcastle VB 1998 The Cerebral Cortex. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA).
Type of list P4
List Unit Identifier 6130
Number of children 182 (validated)
Number of units 61 (validated)
Signature 2458 (validated since 27.3.2019)
Date: 31.12.2021