Partonomy list P4, primary language: EN, subsidiary: LA, interface: EN, work in progress

basal nuclei (pair)

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Top level nervous system
Level 2 encephalon Short Extended
Level 3 telencephalon Short Extended
Current level basal nuclei (pair)
Subsidiary language with Latin English French Spanish Russian
Non Latin primary language English French Spanish Russian
Partonomy list
Short English equivalent
Short official Latin term
28736 6216
basal nuclei (pair)
nuclei basales (par)
61833 28739 6217
caudate nucleus (pair)
nucleus caudatus (par)
61852 28742 6218
head of caudate nucleus (pair)
caput nuclei caudati (par)
61853 28745 6219
body of caudate nucleus (pair)
corpus nuclei caudati (par)
61854 28748 6220
tail of caudate nucleus (pair)
cauda nuclei caudati (par)
77615 28751 6221
lentiform nucleus (pair) ; lenticular nucleus (pair)
nucleus lentiformis (par) ; nucleus lenticularis (par)
61834 28754 6222
putamen (pair)
putamen (par)
62469 6223 6223
lateral medullary layer ; external medullary layer
lamina medullaris lateralis ; lamina medullaris externa
61839 28760 6224
lateral segment of globus pallidus (pair); external segment of globus pallidus (pair)
globus pallidus lateralis (par); globus pallidalis externus (par)
62470 6225 6225
medial medullary layer ; internal medullary layer
lamina medullaris medialis ; lamina medullaris interna
61840 28766 6226
medial segment of globus pallidus (pair); internal segment of globus pallidus (pair)
globus pallidus medialis (par); globus pallidalis internus (par)
28769 6227
lateral part (pair)
pars lateralis (par)
62471 28772 6228
accessory medullary layer (pair)
lamina medullaris accessoria (par)
28775 6229
medial part (pair)
pars medialis (par)
28778 9839
grey matter of striatum (pair)
substantia grisea striati (par)
77620 28781 6232
dorsal striatum (pair)
striatum dorsale (par)
28784 9840
grey matter of caudate nucleus (pair)
substantia grisea nuclei caudati (par)
28787 9841
striosome (pair)
striosoma (par)
28790 9842
striatal matrix (pair)
matrix striatalis (par)
28794 6240
caudatolenticular grey bridges (pair) ; transcapsular grey bridges (pair)
pontes grisei caudatolenticulares (par) ; pontes grisei transcapsulares (par)
77614 28800 6205
ventral striatum (pair)
striatum ventrale (par)
28803 9844
fundus of striatum (pair)
fundus striati (par)
61889 28806 6206
nucleus accumbens (pair)
nucleus accumbens (par)
77385 28809 6207
central part (pair) ; core region (pair)
pars centralis (par)
77386 28812 6208
medial part (pair) ; shell region (pair)
pars medialis (par)
61891 44796 6199
olfactory tubercle (pair)
tuberculum olfactorium (par)
28816 6194
olfactory insulae (pair) ; terminal insulae (pair) ; olfactory islands (pair); terminal islands (pair)
insulae olfactoriae (par) ; insulae terminales (par)
28964 9852
neurons of striatum (pair)
neura striati (par)
28995 9853
projection neurons of striatum (pair); principal neurons of striatum (pair)
neura projectionis striati (par) ; neura principalia striati (par)
28999 8791
middle spiny neurons of striatum (pair) ; medium-sized spiny cells of striatum (pair)
neura spinosa magnitudinis mediae striati (par)
29003 8792
interneurons of striatum (pair)
interneura striati (par)
29007 8794
excitatory interneurons of striatum (pair)
interneura excitatoria striati (par)
29011 8795
cholinergic interneurons of striatum (pair) ; aspiny type II cholinergic interneurons (pair)
interneura cholinergica striati (par)
29015 8797
inhibitory interneurons of striatum (pair)
interneura inhibitoria striati (par)
29019 8799
GABAergic interneurons of striatum (pair) ; aspiny type I GABAergic interneurons (pair)
interneura GABAergica striati (par)
28819 9845
grey matter of pallidum (pair)
substantia grisea pallidi (par)
77619 28099 6234
dorsal pallidum (pair) ; globus pallidus (pair)
pallidum dorsale (par) ; globus pallidalis (par)
28105 9145
ventral pallidum (pair)
pallidum ventrale (par)
28968 8800
neurons of globus pallidus (pair)
neura globi pallidi (par)
28972 8801
projection neurons of globus pallidus (pair); principal neurons of globus pallidus (pair)
neura projectionis globi pallidi (par) ; neura principalia globi pallidi (par)
28976 8804
large cells of globus pallidus (pair)
neura magna globi pallidi (par)
28979 8805
white matter of basal nuclei (pair)
substantia alba nucleorum basalium (par)
28983 8806
striatal tracts (pair)
tractus striatales (par)
61960 6267 6267
extreme capsule
capsula extrema
61959 6266 6266
external capsule
capsula externa
77637 9509 9509
subcallosal bundle
fasciculus subcallosus
62070 5874 5874
ansa lenticularis
ansa lenticularis
61976 5875 5875
lenticular fasciculus
fasciculus lenticularis
77525 5888 5888
subthalamic fasciculus
fasciculus subthalamicus
62065 5890 5890
thalamic fasciculus
fasciculus thalamicus
28987 8807
striatal pathways (pair)
connexus striatales (par)
29032 8808
striatal afferent pathways (pair)
connexus afferentes striatales (par)
28655 9544
corticostriatal fibres
fibrae corticostriatales
33905 8543
amygdalostriatal fibres
fibrae amygdalostriatales
28079 7918
thalamostriatal fibres
fibrae thalamostriatales
25254 8485
nigrostriatal fibres
fibrae nigrostriatales
29036 8809
striatal efferent pathways (pair)
connexus efferentes striatales (par)
33917 8546
striatopallidal fibres
fibrae striatopallidales
25146 8118
striatonigral fibres
fibrae striatonigrales
28991 8810
pallidal pathways (pair)
connexus pallidales (par)
29040 8811
afferent pallidal pathways (pair)
connexus pallidales afferentes (par)
33917 8546
striatopallidal fibres
fibrae striatopallidales
28086 7922
subthalamopallidal fibres
fibrae subthalamopallidales
29044 8812
efferent pallidal pathways (pair) ; pallidofugal fibres (pair) ▲
connexus pallidales efferentes (par) ; fibrae pallidofugales (par)
33928 8547
pallidosubthalamic fibres
fibrae pallidosubthalamicae
33929 8548
pallidothalamic fibres
fibrae pallidothalamicae
33930 8549
pallidohabenular fibres
fibrae pallidohabenulares
33931 8550
pallidonigral fibres
fibrae pallidonigrales
33932 8551
pallidotegmental fibres
fibrae pallidotegmentales
69 lines
94.2 %
97.7 %
Scientific notes
Libelle of note
The Capsula extrema (Extreme capsule) forms one of the Long association systems involved in language processing (see Catani M, Thiebaut de Schotten M 2012 Atlas of Human Brain Connections. Oxford University Press, Oxford).
The large cholinergic neurons of the Striatum were originally described as Giant interneurons by Kölliker. Three types of GABAergic striatal interneurons can be distinguished, based on size and the colocalization of Parvalbumin, Somatostatin/NPY and Calretinin (Bolam 2010; Haber et al. 2012).
The Fasciculus subcallosus (Subcallosal fasciculus or Bundle of Muratoff; Muratoff W 1893 Secundäre Degenerationen nach Durchschneidung des Balkens. Neurol Centralbl 12:714-729) forms a separate bundle of Corticostriatal fibres (see Schmahmann JD, Pandya DN 2007 The complex history of the fronto-occipital fasciculus. J Hist Med 16:362-377).
The Striatum and Putamen consist of AChE-poor Striosomes within an AChE-rich matrix (Graybiel AM, Ragsdale CW Jr 1978 Histochemically distinct compartments in the striatum of human, monkey and cat demonstrated by acetylthiocholinesterase staining. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:5723-5726; Graybiel AM 1990 Neurotransmitters and modulators in the basal ganglia. Trends Neurosci 13:244-254).
The term Fundus striati points to the ventral parts of the Caudate nucleus and Putamen, that with the Nucleus accumbens and the Olfactory tubercle form the Ventral Striatum.
For Golgi studies see Braak H, Braak E (1982 Neuronal types in the striatum of man. Cell Tissue Res 227:319-342), and Graveland GA, Williams RS, DiFiglia M (1985 A Golgi study of the human neostriatum: Neurons and afferent fibers. J Comp Neurol 234:317-333); for immunohistochemical and physiological data see Bolam JP (2010 Microcircuits of the striatum. In: Shepherd GM, Grillner S, eds: Handbook of Brain Microcircuits. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 109-119) and Haber SN, Adler A, Bergman H (2012 The basal ganglia. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G, eds: The Human Nervous System, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 678-838).
Type of list P4
List Unit Identifier 6216
Number of children 162 (validated)
Number of units 69 (validated)
Signature 9126 (validated since 12.12.2020)
Date: 31.12.2021