Partonomy list P4, primary language: EN, subsidiary: LA, interface: EN, work in progress

frontal lobe (pair)

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Top level nervous system
Level 2 encephalon Short Extended
Level 3 telencephalon Short Extended
Current level frontal lobe (pair)
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Partonomy list
Short English equivalent
Short official Latin term
61824 25033 5991
frontal lobe (pair)
lobus frontalis (par)
38487 8658
superolateral surface (pair)
facies superolateralis (par)
38490 8659
frontomarginal sulcus (pair)
sulcus frontomarginalis (par)
74885 38493 5992
frontal pole (pair)
polus frontalis (par)
274406 26762 11028
frontopolar area (pair)
area frontopolaris (par)
274408 26771 11029
superior frontopolar gyrus (pair)
gyrus frontopolaris superior (par)
274420 26893 11032
middle frontopolar gyrus (pair)
gyrus frontopolaris medius (par)
274414 27363 11034
inferior frontopolar gyrus (pair)
gyrus frontopolaris inferior (par)
274504 27463 11035
frontomarginal gyrus (pair)
gyrus frontomarginalis (par)
74886 5993 5993
frontal operculum
operculum frontale
61860 38499 5994
inferior frontal gyrus (pair)
gyrus frontalis inferior (par)
61982 38502 5995
orbital part (pair)
pars orbitalis (par)
61980 38505 5996
triangular part (pair)
pars triangularis (par)
27466 11840
radiate sulcus (pair)
sulcus radiatus (par)
61981 38508 5997
opercular part (pair)
pars opercularis (par)
83758 38511 8780
diagonal sulcus (pair)
sulcus diagonalis (par)
83757 38514 5998
inferior frontal sulcus (pair)
sulcus frontalis inferior (par)
273103 38517 5999
middle frontal gyrus (pair)
gyrus frontalis medius (par)
38520 8660
superolateral prefrontal cortex (pair)
cortex prefrontalis superolateralis (par)
38523 8661
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pair)
cortex prefrontalis dorsolateralis (par)
38526 8662
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (pair)
cortex prefrontalis ventrolateralis (par)
38529 8663
superolateral premotor cortex (pair)
cortex premotorius superolateralis (par)
38532 8664
dorsal premotor cortex (pair)
cortex premotorius dorsalis (par)
38535 8665
ventral premotor cortex (pair)
cortex premotorius ventralis (par)
61894 27915 6000
precentral gyrus (pair)
gyrus precentralis (par)
29175 12236
primary motor cortex of precentral gyrus (pair)
cortex motorius primarius gyri precentralis (par)
83800 27912 6001
precentral sulcus (pair)
sulcus precentralis (par)
83765 38541 8667
anterior subcentral sulcus (pair)
sulcus subcentralis anterior (par)
83778 38544 8668
posterior subcentral sulcus (pair)
sulcus subcentralis posterior (par)
61857 38547 6002
superior frontal gyrus (pair)
gyrus frontalis superior (par)
83755 38550 6003
superior frontal sulcus (pair)
sulcus frontalis superior (par)
38698 9118
inferomedial surface (pair)
facies inferomedialis (par)
61857 6002 6002
superior frontal gyrus
gyrus frontalis superior
27469 12158
paracingulate sulcus (pair)
sulcus paracingularis (par)
27473 12159
paracingulate gyrus (pair)
gyrus paracingularis (par)
83782 38701 6044
paracentral sulcus (pair)
sulcus paracentralis (par)
77534 6045 6045
paracentral lobule
lobulus paracentralis
77537 6046 6046
anterior paracentral gyrus
gyrus paracentralis anterior
12237 12237
primary motor cortex
cortex motorius primarius
38710 8669
inferomedial prefrontal cortex (pair)
cortex prefrontalis inferomedialis (par)
38713 8670
medial prefrontal cortex (pair)
cortex prefrontalis medialis (par)
38716 8671
inferomedial premotor cortex (pair)
cortex premotorius inferomedialis (par)
38719 8672
medial premotor cortex (pair)
cortex premotorius medialis (par)
61890 38722 6047
subcallosal area (pair) ; subcallosal gyrus (pair)
area subcallosa (par) ; gyrus subcallosus (par)
61919 38725 6048
paraterminal gyrus (pair)
gyrus paraterminalis (par)
61890 38728 6049
paraolfactory area (pair)
area paraolfactoria (par)
72019 38731 6050
paraolfactory gyrus (pair)
gyrus paraolfactorius (par)
38735 6051
paraolfactory sulci (pair)
sulci paraolfactorii (par)
83744 38738 8673
anterior paraolfactory sulcus (pair)
sulcus paraolfactorius anterior (par)
83745 38741 8674
posterior paraolfactory sulcus (pair)
sulcus paraolfactorius posterior (par)
256194 38745 6052
orbital gyri (pair)
gyri orbitales (par)
62419 38748 8675
medial orbital gyrus (pair)
gyrus orbitalis medialis (par)
256196 38751 8676
anterior orbital gyrus (pair)
gyrus orbitalis anterior (par)
80184 38754 8677
posterior orbital gyrus (pair)
gyrus orbitalis posterior (par)
62418 38757 8678
lateral orbital gyrus (pair)
gyrus orbitalis lateralis (par)
27481 12160
posteromedial orbital lobule (pair)
lobulus orbitalis posteromedialis (par)
27547 12161
posterolateral orbital region (pair)
regio orbitalis posterolateralis (par)
83770 38761 6053
orbital sulci (pair)
sulci orbitales (par)
38764 8679
lateral orbital sulcus (pair)
sulcus orbitalis lateralis (par)
83771 38767 8680
transverse orbital sulcus (pair)
sulcus orbitalis transversus (par)
38770 8681
medial orbital sulcus (pair)
sulcus orbitalis medialis (par)
27863 12162
superior rostral sulcus (pair)
sulcus rostralis superior (par)
27894 12163
inferior rostral sulcus (pair)
sulcus rostralis inferior (par)
61893 38773 6054
straight gyrus (pair)
gyrus rectus (par)
83769 38776 6055
olfactory sulcus (pair)
sulcus olfactorius (par)
38779 8682
anterior perforated substance (pair) ; rostral perforated substance (pair)
substantia perforata anterior (par) ; substantia perforata rostralis (par)
38782 8683
olfactory structures (pair)
structurae olfactoriae (par)
77624 38785 6195
olfactory bulb (pair)
bulbus olfactorius (par)
77625 38788 6196
olfactory peduncle (pair)
pedunculus olfactorius (par)
77626 6197 6197
olfactory tract
tractus olfactorius
74883 38791 6198
olfactory trigone (pair)
trigonum olfactorium (par)
61891 6199 6199
olfactory tubercle
tuberculum olfactorium
38795 6200
olfactory striae (pair)
striae olfactoriae (par)
77627 38798 6201
medial olfactory stria (pair)
stria olfactoria medialis (par)
61971 38801 6202
lateral olfactory stria (pair)
stria olfactoria lateralis (par)
46174 14202
lateral olfactory tract (pair)
tractus olfactorius lateralis (par)
38804 8686
retrobulbar region (pair)
regio retrobulbaris (par)
38807 8687
piriform cortex (pair) ; primary olfactory cortex (pair)
cortex piriformis (par) ; cortex olfactorius primarius (par)
38810 8689
frontal part (pair)
pars frontalis (par)
38813 8690
temporal part (pair)
pars temporalis (par)
80 lines
97.5 %
97.5 %
Scientific notes
Libelle of note
For the Polus frontalis (Frontal pole) and its subdivision, see Petrides M, Pandya DN (2012 The frontal lobe. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G, eds: The Human Nervous System, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 988-1011; Bludau S, Eickhoff SB, Mohlberg H, et al. (2014) Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole. Neuroimage 93:260-275.
For subdivision of Broca’s area, see Amunts K, Schleicher A, Bürgel U, et al. (1999 Broca’s region revisited: Cytoarchitecture and intersubject variability. J Comp Neurol 412:319-341). The Sulcus diagonalis (of Eberstaller) is a variable branch of the Sulcus lateralis, dividing the Pars opercularis into two parts. The Sulcus radiatus (of Eberstaller) may indent the Pars triangularis from above.
The following Gyri orbitales can be distinguished: 1) the Gyrus orbitalis medialis, the gyrus between the olfactory sulcus and the medial orbital sulcus; 2) the Gyrus orbitalis anterior, the cortex rostral to the transverse orbital sulcus; 3) the Gyrus orbitalis posterior, the cortex caudal to the transverse orbital sulcus; and 4) the Gyrus orbitalis lateralis, the gyrus lateral to the lateral orbital sulcus. The caudal parts of the medial and posterior orbital gyri merge to form the Lobulus orbitalis posteromedialis as described by Türe U, Yasargil DCH, Al-Mefti O, Yasargil MC (1999 Topographic anatomy of the insular region. J Neurosurg 90:720-733) and Naidich TP, Kang E, Fatterpekar GM, et al. (2004 The insula: Anatomic study and MR imaging display at 1.5T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:222-232). Mai and Majtanik (2017 Human Brain in Standard MNI Space. Academic/Elsevier, San Diego) also described a Regio orbitalis posterolateralis.
Lateral to the Sulcus olfactorius, there are two longitudinally directed sulci, the Sulcus orbitalis medialis and the Sulcus orbitalis lateralis, which are joined together by the Sulcus orbitalis transversus to form the impression of an H or a K pattern (Duvernoy 1992; Petrides and Pandya 2012). The cingulate sulcus continues around the rostrum of the corpus callosum, where it is also known as the Sulcus rostralis superior. This sulcus may continue as the Sulcus rostralis inferior, which separates the straight gyrus from the medial surface of the frontal lobe.
The Sulcus frontomarginalis (Frontomarginal sulcus of Wernicke) is an important landmark in the frontal polar region (Duvernoy HM 1992 Le cerveau humain. Springer, Paris; Tamraz JC, Comair YG 2006 Atlas of Regional Anatomy of the Brain Using MRI. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York), and used as such in the DTI literature (Catani M, Thiebaut de Schotten M 2012 Atlas of Human Brain Connections. Oxford University Press, Oxford).
The various Motor areas of the Frontal lobe are known as F1-F7 in monkey brains (see Geyer G, Luppino L, Rozzi G 2012 Motor cortex. In: Mai JK, Paxinos G, eds: The Human Nervous System, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1012-1035): F1 is the Primary motor cortex, F2 the Caudal part of the Cortex premotorius dorsalis, F3, the the Caudal part of the Cortex premotorius medialis (SMA proper), F4 the Caudal part of the Cortex premotorius ventralis, F5 the Rostral part of the Cortex premotorius ventralis, F6 the Rostral part of the Cortex premotorius medialis (Pre-SMA), and F7 the Rostral part of the Cortex premotorius dorsalis.
See note # 8663
See note # 8663
Usually, the Sulcus centralis does not reach the Sulcus lateralis and is separated from it by a short gyrus, the Gyrus subcentralis, which is formed by the 'fusion' of the Precentral and Postcentral gyri in their ventralmost parts. The Subcentral gyrus is delimited in front and behind by the Anterior and Posterior subcentral sulci (Dejerine 1895; Duvernoy 1992; Petrides and Pandya 2012). Also known as: Central or Rolandic operculum, and Inferior frontoparietal 'pli de passage'.
See note # 8666
See note # 8666
See note # 8663
See note # 8663
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6053
See note # 6053
See note # 6053
The term Nucleus olfactorius anterior of TA is mostly cortical and is replaced by the more appropriate term Regio retrobulbaris (see Zilles and Amunts 2012). The two- or three-layered structure recognizable in lower primates is hardly visible in the human brain.
See note # 5996
Frequently, a series of furrows delineates the Sulcus paracinguli (Paracingulate sulcus), which separates the medial division of the superior frontal gyrus from the Gyrus paracinguli (Paracingulate gyrus).
See note # 12158
See note # 6052
See note # 6052
See note # 6053
See note # 6053
Type of list P4
List Unit Identifier 5991
Number of children 225 (validated)
Number of units 80 (validated)
Signature 6303 (validated since 12.12.2020)
Date: 31.12.2021